What is earnings per stock?

Earnings per per share (EPS) is a measure of profitability that shows how much profit a company earns per share. Adjusted EPS is the company’s income from continuing operations, excluding non-recurring income and expenses. The market evaluates companies based on their current and future profit potential.

To get an idea of ​​what the market thinks of a company, you can read the valuation of its shares by the ratio of the current price to earnings per share. stock – known as the price-to-earnings ratio, or P/E for short. While these numbers give you some information, they don’t answer some basic questions: What kind of cash did the company generate? Has it spent more money on new factories or research? How much money did the company have available to reinvest?

Earnings per share (EPS) Formula and calculation

Earnings per earnings per share (EPS) is the portion of a company’s earnings that is distributed to shareholders. It is calculated by dividing the company’s net income by the total number of outstanding shares. The basic formula for earnings per share is net income / total shares. An increase in shares reduces earnings per stock. One then also speaks of a “dilution” of the profit, since the profit is now distributed over several shares and thus decreases per securities. Conversely, a decrease in average outstanding shares increases earnings per share. stock.

Example of EPS

Assume a company has 100,000 shares outstanding and earns $1 million in a given year. Earnings per share is 1 million euros / 100,000 shares = 10 euros per stock. However, this does not mean that each shareholder automatically receives 10 euros from the company’s profits. The board proposes a specific payout percentage to the general meeting in order to be able to reinvest the rest of the profit for various company purposes.


For example, if the board proposes to its investors to pay out 4 euros for the most recent financial year, this will result in a payout percentage of 40%. The remaining 60% of the net profit then remains in the group.

In the above example, let’s assume that the current price of the stock is 100 euros. Then the price-to-earnings ratio (€100 market cap / €10 earnings per share) would be 10. A P/E ratio of 10 is generally considered cheap. However, the actual assessment varies from industry to industry, so this assessment cannot be generalized.

How is EPS used?

The earnings per share (EPS) ratio is a metric used to evaluate a company’s profitability. If the P/E is high but the EPS is low, or vice versa, the company may not be a good investment. A company’s earnings per share can be compared with its own earnings per share from previous periods and with earnings per stock in other companies in its industry.

The EPS ratio allows investors to compare different companies to determine how profitable each company is relative to its share price. When a company has a high P/E ratio, but also high earnings per per share, it indicates that investors expect the company to grow rapidly and increase its earnings significantly in the future.


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Basic earnings per stock vs. diluted earnings

The difference between basic and diluted earnings per share is the change in the number of outstanding shares. An increase in the number of shares outstanding reduces EPS, while a decrease in the number of shares outstanding increases EPS. Diluted EPS includes the effect of stock options, convertible bonds and other securities that can be converted into common stock.

Dilution refers to increasing the number of outstanding shares through the issuance of additional shares. Many companies use convertible bonds to raise money. When convertible bonds are issued, they are contractually obligated to pay bondholders at a specific time and with interest. However, the company can choose to exchange the convertible bonds for ordinary shares. In this case, the number of outstanding shares increases.

EPS excluding extraordinary items

Earnings per the share ratio can be misleading as it is based on reported full-year earnings. Companies can use one-off events, such as a sale of an asset, to increase their EPS. To solve this problem, some companies report earnings per share without extraordinary items. It is important to note that some companies report their EPS without extraordinary items, while others report their EPS with extraordinary items. Investors should definitely pay attention to what the company is reporting and why.

Earnings per share from continuing activities

Result per share from continuing activities is used for companies that have ceased activities. Result per share from continuing operations is calculated by dividing net income from continuing operations by the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding for the year. The year’s net income is the total income from continuing activities after elimination of non-recurring items.

Non-recurring items are expenses that are not expected to be recurring. For example, if a company undergoes a reorganization and there are many costs involved, these are one-off expenses that are not expected in the future.

EPS and capital

The return on equity (ROE) measures the amount of profit earned per euros of equity. Most banks and investors prefer return on equity rather than earnings per share. per share (EPS), as EPS does not take into account the amount of equity raised during the year. Return on equity is calculated by dividing the annual result by the equity used during the year. The amount of equity includes common stock, retained earnings and other equity.

Earnings per share for comparison

You can compare a company’s earnings per share with historical earnings per share, earnings per share in a peer group company or the average earnings per share for the entire industry. However, it is important to remember that these are only general guidelines. Earnings per per share, book value and price-to-earnings multiples are not perfect measures of a stock’s value by themselves. Only when viewed together do these indicators make it possible to make a meaningful assessment.

Buy, hold or sell DAX?

How will the DAX develop now? Is an entry worth it, or should investors rather sell? You can find out the answers to these questions and why you should act now in the current DAX analysis.

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